# SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

defmodule ChromicPDF do
  @moduledoc """
  ChromicPDF is a fast HTML-to-PDF/A renderer based on Chrome & Ghostscript.

  ## Usage

  ### Start

  Start ChromicPDF as part of your supervision tree:

      def MyApp.Application do
        def start(_type, _args) do
          children = [
            # other apps...
            {ChromicPDF, chromic_pdf_opts()}

          Supervisor.start_link(children, strategy: :one_for_one, name: MyApp.Supervisor)

        defp chromic_pdf_opts do

  ### Print a PDF or PDF/A

      ChromicPDF.print_to_pdf({:url, "file:///example.html"}, output: "output.pdf")

  PDF printing comes with a ton of options. Please see `ChromicPDF.print_to_pdf/2` and
  `ChromicPDF.convert_to_pdfa/2` for details.

  ## Security Considerations

  By default, ChromicPDF will allow Chrome to make use of its own ["sandbox" process jail](
  The sandbox tries to limit system resource access of the renderer processes to the minimum
  resources they require to perform their task. It is designed to make displaying HTML pages
  relatively safe, in terms of preventing undesired access of a page to the host operating system.

  Nevertheless, running a browser as part of your application, especially when used to process
  user-supplied content, significantly increases your attack surface. Hence, before adding
  ChromicPDF to your application's (perhaps already long) list of dependencies, you may want
  to consider the security hints below.

  ### Architectural isolation

  A great, if not the best option to mitigate security risks due to the use of ChromicPDF / a
  Browser in your stack, is to turn your "document renderer" component into a containerized
  service with a small RPC interface. This will create a nice barrier between Chrome and the rest
  of your application, so that even if an attacker manages to escape Chrome's sandbox, they will
  still be jailed within the container. It also has other benefits like better control of
  resources, e.g. how much CPU you want to dedicate to PDF rendering.

  ### Escape user-supplied data

  Make sure to always escape user-provided data with something like [`Phoenix.HTML.html_escape`](
  This should prevent an attacker from injecting malicious scripts into your template.

  ### Disabling scripts

  If your template allows, you can disable JavaScript execution altogether (using the
  DevTools command [`Emulation.setScriptExecutionDisabled`](
  with the `:disable_scripts` option:

      def chromic_pdf_opts do
        [disable_scripts: true]

  Note that this doesn't prevent other features like the `evaluate` option from working, it
  solely applies to scripts being supplied by the rendered page itself.

  ### Running in offline mode

  To prevent your templates from accessing any remote hosts, the browser targets can be spawned
  in "offline mode" (using the DevTools command [`Network.emulateNetworkConditions`](
  Chrome targets with network conditions set to `offline` can't resolve any external URLs (e.g.
  `https://`), neither entered as navigation URL nor contained within the HTML body.

      def chromic_pdf_opts do
        [offline: true]

  ### Chrome Sandbox in Docker containers

  In Docker containers running Linux images (e.g. images based on Alpine), and which
  are configured to run their main job as a non-root user, the sandbox may cause Chrome to crash
  on startup as it requires root privileges.

  The error output (`discard_stderr: false` option) looks as follows:

      Failed to move to new namespace: PID namespaces supported, Network namespace supported,
      but failed: errno = Operation not permitted

  The best way to resolve this issue is to configure your Docker container to use seccomp rules
  that grant Chrome access to the relevant system calls. See the excellent [Zenika/alpine-chrome]( repository for details on how to make this work.

  Alternatively, you may choose to disable Chrome's sandbox with the `no_sandbox` option.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [no_sandbox: true]

  ### SSL connections

  In you are fetching your print source from a `https://` URL, as usual Chrome verifies the
  remote host's SSL certificate when establishing the secure connection, and errors out of
  navigation if the certificate has expired or is not signed by a known certificate authority
  (i.e. no self-signed certificates).

  For production systems, this security check is essential and should not be circumvented.
  However, if for some reason you need to bypass certificate verification in development or test,
  you can do this with the `:ignore_certificate_errors` option.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [ignore_certificate_errors: true]

  ## Worker pools

  ChromicPDF spawns two worker pools, the session pool and the ghostscript pool. By default, it
  will create as many sessions (browser tabs) as schedulers are online, and allow the same number
  of concurrent Ghostscript processes to run.

  ### Concurrency

  To increase or limit the number of concurrent workers, you can pass pool configuration to the
  supervisor. Please note that these are non-queueing worker pools. If you intend to max them out,
  you will need a job queue as well.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
          session_pool: [size: 3]
          ghostscript_pool: [size: 10]

  ### Operation timeouts

  By default, ChromicPDF allows the print process to take 5 seconds to finish. In case you are
  printing large PDFs and run into timeouts, these can be configured configured by passing the
  `timeout` option to the session pool.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
          session_pool: [timeout: 10_000]   # in milliseconds

  In addition, there is the `init_timeout` option, which controls the timeout when the session pool
  initializes (defaults also to 5 seconds).

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
          session_pool: [init_timeout: 10_000]   # in milliseconds

  ### Automatic session restarts to avoid memory drain

  By default, ChromicPDF will restart sessions within the Chrome process after 1000 operations.
  This helps to prevent infinite growth in Chrome's memory consumption. The "max age" of a session
  can be configured with the `:max_session_uses` option.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [max_session_uses: 1000]

  ## Chrome zombies

  > Help, a Chrome army tries to take over my memory!

  ChromicPDF tries its best to gracefully close the external Chrome process when its supervisor
  is terminated. Unfortunately, when the BEAM is not shutdown gracefully, Chrome processes will
  keep running.  While in a containerized production environment this is unlikely to be of
  concern, in development it can lead to unpleasant performance degradation of your operation

  In particular, the BEAM is not shutdown properly…

  * when you exit your application or `iex` console with the Ctrl+C abort mechanism (see issue [#56](,
  * and when you run your tests. No, after an ExUnit run your application's supervisor is
    not terminated cleanly.

  There are a few ways to mitigate this issue.

  ### "On Demand" mode

  In case you habitually end your development server with Ctrl+C, you should consider enabling "On
  Demand" mode which disables the session pool, and instead starts and stops Chrome instances as
  needed. If multiple PDF operations are requested simultaneously, multiple Chrome processes will
  be launched (each with a pool size of 1, disregarding the pool configuration).

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [on_demand: true]

  To enable it only for development, you can load the option from the application environment.

      # config/config.exs
      config :my_app, ChromicPDF, on_demand: false

      # config/dev.exs
      config :my_app, ChromicPDF, on_demand: true

      # application.ex
      @chromic_pdf_opts Application.compile_env!(:my_app, ChromicPDF)
      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        @chromic_pdf_opts ++ [... other opts ...]

  ### Terminating your supervisor after your test suite

  You can enable "On Demand" mode for your tests, as well. However, please be aware that each
  test that prints a PDF will have an increased runtime (plus about 0.5s) due to the added Chrome
  boot time cost. Luckily, ExUnit provides a [method](
  to run code at the end of your test suite.

      # test/test_helper.exs
      ExUnit.after_suite(fn _ -> Supervisor.stop(MyApp.Supervisor) end)

  ### Only start ChromicPDF in production

  The easiest way to prevent Chrome from spawning in development is to only run ChromicPDF in
  the `prod` environment. However, obviously you won't be able to print PDFs in development or
  test then.

  ## Chrome Options

  ### Custom command line switches

  The `:chrome_args` option allows to pass arbitrary options to the Chrome/Chromium executable.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [chrome_args: "--font-render-hinting=none"]

  The `:chrome_executable` option allows to specify a custom Chrome/Chromium executable.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [chrome_executable: "/usr/bin/google-chrome-beta"]

  ### Debugging Chrome errors

  Chrome's stderr logging is silently discarded to not obscure your logfiles. In case you would
  like to take a peek, add the `discard_stderr: false` option.

      defp chromic_pdf_opts do
        [discard_stderr: false]

  ## Telemetry support

  To provide insights into PDF and PDF/A generation performance, ChromicPDF executes the
  following telemetry events:

  * `[:chromic_pdf, :print_to_pdf, :start | :stop | exception]`
  * `[:chromic_pdf, :capture_screenshot, :start | :stop | :exception]`
  * `[:chromic_pdf, :convert_to_pdfa, :start | :stop | exception]`

  Please see [`:telemetry.span/3`]( for
  details on their payloads, and [`:telemetry.attach/4`](
  for how to attach to them.

  Each of the corresponding functions accepts a `telemetry_metadata` option which is passed to
  the attached event handler. This can, for instance, be used to mark events with custom tags such
  as the type of the print document.

      ChromicPDF.print_to_pdf(..., telemetry_metadata: %{template: "invoice"})

  The `print_to_pdfa` function emits both the `print_to_pdf` and `convert_to_pdfa` event series,
  in that order.

  ## How it works

  ### PDF Printing

  * ChromicPDF spawns an instance of Chromium/Chrome (an OS process) and connects to its
    "DevTools" channel via file descriptors.
  * The Chrome process is supervised and the connected processes will automatically recover if it
  * A number of "targets" in Chrome are spawned, 1 per worker process in the `SessionPool`. By
    default, ChromicPDF will spawn each session in a new browser context (i.e., a profile).
  * When a PDF print is requested, a session will instruct its assigned "target" to navigate to
    the given URL, then wait until it receives a "frameStoppedLoading" event, and proceed to call
    the `printToPDF` function.
  * The printed PDF will be sent to the session as Base64 encoded chunks.

  ### PDF/A Conversion

  * To convert a PDF to a PDF/A-3, ChromicPDF uses the [ghostscript](
  * Since it is required to embed a color scheme into PDF/A files, ChromicPDF ships with a copy
    of the royalty-free [`eciRGB_V2`]( scheme by the European Color
    Initiative. If you need to be able to use a different color scheme, please open an issue.

  use ChromicPDF.Supervisor