# Earmark—A Pure Elixir Markdown Processor

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## Table Of Contents

<!-- BEGIN generated TOC -->
* [Dependency](#dependency)
* [Usage](#usage)
* [Details](#details)
* [`Earmark.as_html/2`](#earmarkas_html2)
* [`Earmark.as_ast/2`](#earmarkas_ast2)
* [`Earmark.Transform.transform/2`](#earmarktransformtransform2)
* [Contributing](#contributing)
* [Author](#author)
<!-- END generated TOC -->

## Dependency

    { :earmark, "> x.y.z" }

## Usage

<!-- BEGIN inserted moduledoc Earmark -->

### API

#### Earmark.as_html

    {:ok, html_doc, []}                   = Earmark.as_html(markdown)
    {:ok, html_doc, deprecation_messages} = Earmark.as_html(markdown)
    {:error, html_doc, error_messages}    = Earmark.as_html(markdown)

#### Earmark.as_html!

    html_doc = Earmark.as_html!(markdown, options)

All messages are printed to _stderr_.

#### Options

Options can be passed into `as_html/2` or `as_html!/2` according to the documentation.

    html_doc = Earmark.as_html!(markdown)
    html_doc = Earmark.as_html!(markdown, options)

Formats the error_messages returned by `as_html` and adds the filename to each.
Then prints them to stderr and just returns the html_doc

#### NEW and EXPERIMENTAL: `Earmark.as_ast`

Although well tested the way the exposed AST will look in future versions may change, a stable
API is expected for Earmark v1.6, when the rendered HTML shall be derived from the ast too.

More details can be found in the function's description below.

### Command line

    $ mix
    $ ./earmark

Some options defined in the `Earmark.Options` struct can be specified as command line switches.


    $ ./earmark --help

to find out more, but here is a short example

    $ ./earmark --smartypants false --code-class-prefix "a- b-"

will call

    Earmark.as_html!( ..., %Earmark.Options{smartypants: false, code_class_prefix: "a- b-"})

## Supports

Standard [Gruber markdown][gruber].

[gruber]: <>

## Extensions

### Github Flavored Markdown

GFM is supported by default, however as GFM is a moving target and all GFM extension do not make sense in a general context, Earmark does not support all of it, here is a list of what is supported:

#### Strike Through

    iex(1)> Earmark.as_html! ["~~hello~~"]

#### Syntax Highlighting

All backquoted or fenced code blocks with a language string are rendered with the given
language as a _class_ attribute of the _code_ tag.

For example:

    iex(8)> [
    ...(8)>    "```elixir",
    ...(8)>    " @tag :hello",
    ...(8)>    "```"
    ...(8)> ] |> Earmark.as_html!()
    "<pre><code class=\"elixir\"> @tag :hello</code></pre>\n"

will be rendered as shown in the doctest above.

If you want to integrate with a syntax highlighter with different conventions you can add more classes by specifying prefixes that will be
put before the language string.

Prism.js for example needs a class `language-elixir`. In order to achieve that goal you can add `language-`
as a `code_class_prefix` to `Earmark.Options`.

In the following example we want more than one additional class, so we add more prefixes.

    Earmark.as_html!(..., %Earmark.Options{code_class_prefix: "lang- language-"})

which is rendering

    <pre><code class="elixir lang-elixir language-elixir">...

As for all other options `code_class_prefix` can be passed into the `earmark` executable as follows:

    earmark --code-class-prefix "language- lang-" ...

#### Tables

Are supported as long as they are preceded by an empty line.

    State | Abbrev | Capital
    ----: | :----: | -------
    Texas | TX     | Austin
    Maine | ME     | Augusta

Tables may have leading and trailing vertical bars on each line

    | State | Abbrev | Capital |
    | ----: | :----: | ------- |
    | Texas | TX     | Austin  |
    | Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Tables need not have headers, in which case all column alignments
default to left.

    | Texas | TX     | Austin  |
    | Maine | ME     | Augusta |

Currently we assume there are always spaces around interior vertical unless
there are exterior bars.

However in order to be more GFM compatible the `gfm_tables: true` option
can be used to interpret only interior vertical bars as a table if a seperation
line is given, therefor

     Elixir  | awesome

is a table (iff `gfm_tables: true`) while

     Elixir  | awesome

never is.

### Adding HTML attributes with the IAL extension

#### To block elements

HTML attributes can be added to any block-level element. We use
the Kramdown syntax: add the line `{:` _attrs_ `}` following the block.

_attrs_ can be one or more of:

  * `.className`
  * `#id`
  * name=value, name="value", or name='value'

For example:

    # Warning
    {: .red}

    Do not turn off the engine
    if you are at altitude.
    {: .boxed #warning spellcheck="true"}

#### To links or images

It is possible to add IAL attributes to generated links or images in the following

    iex(4)> markdown = "[link](url) {: .classy}"
    ...(4)> Earmark.as_html(markdown)
    { :ok, "<p><a href=\"url\" class=\"classy\">link</a></p>\n", []}

For both cases, malformed attributes are ignored and warnings are issued.

    iex(5)> [ "Some text", "{:hello}" ] |> Enum.join("\n") |> Earmark.as_html()
    {:error, "<p>Some text</p>\n", [{:warning, 2,"Illegal attributes [\"hello\"] ignored in IAL"}]}

It is possible to escape the IAL in both forms if necessary

    iex(6)> markdown = "[link](url)\\{: .classy}"
    ...(6)> Earmark.as_html(markdown)
    {:ok, "<p><a href=\"url\">link</a>{: .classy}</p>\n", []}

This of course is not necessary in code blocks or text lines
containing an IAL-like string, as in the following example

    iex(7)> markdown = "hello {:world}"
    ...(7)> Earmark.as_html!(markdown)
    "<p>hello {:world}</p>\n"

## Limitations

  * Block-level HTML is correctly handled only if each HTML
    tag appears on its own line. So


  will work. However. the following won't


* John Gruber's tests contain an ambiguity when it comes to
  lines that might be the start of a list inside paragraphs.

  One test says that

        This is the text
        * of a paragraph
        that I wrote

  is a single paragraph. The "*" is not significant. However, another
  test has

        *   A list item
            * an another

  and expects this to be a nested list. But, in reality, the second could just
  be the continuation of a paragraph.

  I've chosen always to use the second interpretation—a line that looks like
  a list item will always be a list item.

* Rendering of block and inline elements.

  Block or void HTML elements that are at the absolute beginning of a line end
  the preceding paragraph.


        <hr />


        <hr />


         <hr />

  will be transformed into

         <hr /></p>

## Timeouts

By default, that is if the `timeout` option is not set Earmark uses parallel mapping as implemented in `Earmark.pmap/2`,
which uses `Task.await` with its default timeout of 5000ms.

In rare cases that might not be enough.

By indicating a longer `timeout` option in milliseconds Earmark will use parallel mapping as implemented in `Earmark.pmap/3`,
which will pass `timeout` to `Task.await`.

In both cases one can override the mapper function with either the `mapper` option (used if and only if `timeout` is nil) or the
`mapper_with_timeout` function (used otherwise).

For the escript only the `timeout` command line argument can be used.

## Security

Please be aware that Markdown is not a secure format. It produces
HTML from Markdown and HTML. It is your job to sanitize and or
filter the output of `Earmark.as_html` if you cannot trust the input
and are to serve the produced HTML on the Web.

<!-- END inserted moduledoc Earmark -->

## Details

## `Earmark.as_html/2`

<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_html/2 -->
Given a markdown document (as either a list of lines or
a string containing newlines), returns a tuple containing either
`{:ok, html_doc, error_messages}`, or `{:error, html_doc, error_messages}`
Where `html_doc` is an HTML representation of the markdown document and
`error_messages` is a list of tuples with the following elements

- `severity` e.g. `:error`, `:warning` or `:deprecation`
- line number in input where the error occurred
- description of the error

`options` can be an `%Earmark.Options{}` structure, or can be passed in as a `Keyword` argument (with legal keys for `%Earmark.Options` 

* `renderer`: ModuleName

  The module used to render the final document. Defaults to

* `gfm`: boolean

  True by default. Turns on the supported Github Flavored Markdown extensions

* `breaks`: boolean

  Only applicable if `gfm` is enabled. Makes all line breaks
  significant (so every line in the input is a new line in the

* `code_class_prefix`: binary

  Code blocks will be rendered with prefixed class names, which might be necessary for
  usage with 3rd party libraries.

        Earmark.as_html("```elixir\nCode\n```", code_class_prefix: "my_prefix_")

        {:ok, "<pre><code class=\"elixir my_prefix_elixir\">Code\```</code></pre>\n", []}

* `smartypants`: boolean

  Turns on smartypants processing, so quotes become curly, two
  or three hyphens become en and em dashes, and so on. True by

  So, to format the document in `original` and disable smartypants,
  you'd call

        alias Earmark.Options
        Earmark.as_html(original, %Options{smartypants: false})

* `pure_links`: boolean

  Pure links of the form `~r{\bhttps?://\S+\b}` are rendered as links from now on.
  However, by setting the `pure_links` option to `false` this can be disabled and pre 1.4 
  behavior can be used.

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_html/2 -->

## `Earmark.as_ast/2`

<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_ast/2 -->
**EXPERIMENTAL**, but well tested, just expect API changes in the 1.4 branch

      iex(9)> markdown = "My `code` is **best**"
      ...(9)> {:ok, ast, []} = Earmark.as_ast(markdown)
      ...(9)> ast
      [{"p", [], ["My ", {"code", [{"class", "inline"}], ["code"]}, " is ", {"strong", [], ["best"]}]}] 

Options are passes like to `as_html`, some do not have an effect though (e.g. `smartypants`) as formatting and escaping is not done
for the AST.

      iex(10)> markdown = "```elixir\nIO.puts 42\n```"
      ...(10)> {:ok, ast, []} = Earmark.as_ast(markdown, code_class_prefix: "lang-")
      ...(10)> ast
      [{"pre", [], [{"code", [{"class", "elixir lang-elixir"}], ["IO.puts 42"]}]}]


The AST is exposed in the spirit of [Floki's]( there might be some subtle WS
differences and we chose to **always** have tripples, even for comments.
We also do return a list for a single node

      Floki.parse("<!-- comment -->")           
      {:comment, " comment "}

      Earmark.as_ast("<!-- comment -->")
      {:ok, [{:comment, [], [" comment "]}], []}

Therefore `as_ast` is of the following type

      @typep tag  :: String.t | :comment
      @typep att  :: {String.t, String.t}
      @typep atts :: list(att)
      @typep node :: String.t | {tag, atts, ast}

      @type  ast  :: list(node)

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.as_ast/2 -->

## `Earmark.Transform.transform/2`

<!-- BEGIN inserted functiondoc Earmark.Transform.transform/2 -->
But well tested, just expect API changes in the 1.4 branch
Takes an ast, and optional options (I love this pun), which can be
a map or keyword list of which the following keys will be used:

- `smartypants:` `boolean`
- `initial_indent:` `number`
- `indent:` `number`

      iex(1)> transform({"p", [], [{"em", [], "help"}, "me"]})
      "<p>\n  <em>\n    help\n  </em>\n  me\n</p>\n"

Right now only transformation to HTML is supported.

The transform is also agnostic to any annotation map that is added to the AST.

Only the `:meta` key is reserved and by passing annotation maps with a `:meta` key
into the AST the result might become altered or an exception might be raised, otherwise...

      iex(2)> transform({"p", [], [{"em", [], ["help"], %{inner: true}}], %{level: 1}})
      "<p>\n  <em>\n    help\n  </em>\n</p>\n"

<!-- END inserted functiondoc Earmark.Transform.transform/2 -->

## Contributing

Pull Requests are happily accepted.

Please be aware of one _caveat_ when correcting/improving ``.

The `` is generated by the mix task `readme` from `README.template` and
docstrings by means of `%moduledoc` or `%functiondoc` directives.

Please identify the origin of the generated text you want to correct and then
apply your changes there.

Then issue the mix task `readme`, this is important to have a correctly updated `` after the merge of
your PR.

Thank you all who have already helped with Earmark, your names are duely noted in [](

## Author

Copyright © 2014,5,6,7,8 Dave Thomas, The Pragmatic Programmers


Same as Elixir, which is Apache License v2.0. Please refer to [LICENSE](LICENSE) for details.

SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0