defmodule Ecto.Adapters.Postgres do
  @moduledoc """
  Adapter module for PostgreSQL.

  It uses `Postgrex` for communicating to the database.

  ## Features

    * Full query support (including joins, preloads and associations)
    * Support for transactions
    * Support for data migrations
    * Support for ecto.create and ecto.drop operations
    * Support for transactional tests via `Ecto.Adapters.SQL`

  ## Options

  Postgres options split in different categories described
  below. All options can be given via the repository

      config :your_app, YourApp.Repo,

  The `:prepare` option may be specified per operation:

      YourApp.Repo.all(Queryable, prepare: :unnamed)

  ### Migration options

    * `:migration_lock` - prevent multiple nodes from running migrations at the same
      time by obtaining a lock. The value `:table_lock` will lock migrations by wrapping
      the entire migration inside a database transaction, including inserting the
      migration version into the migration source (by default, "schema_migrations").
      You may alternatively select `:pg_advisory_lock` which has the benefit
      of allowing concurrent operations such as creating indexes. (default: `:table_lock`)

  When using the `:pg_advisory_lock` migration lock strategy and Ecto cannot obtain
  the lock due to another instance occupying the lock, Ecto will wait for 5 seconds
  and then retry infinity times. This is configurable on the repo with keys
  `:migration_advisory_lock_retry_interval_ms` and `:migration_advisory_lock_max_tries`.
  If the retries are exhausted, the migration will fail.

  Some downsides to using advisory locks is that some Postgres-compatible systems or plugins
  may not support session level locks well and therefore result in inconsistent behavior.
  For example, PgBouncer when using pool_modes other than session won't work well with
  advisory locks. CockroachDB is another system that is designed in a way that advisory
  locks don't make sense for their distributed database.

  ### Connection options

    * `:hostname` - Server hostname
    * `:socket_dir` - Connect to Postgres via UNIX sockets in the given directory
      The socket name is derived based on the port. This is the preferred method
      for configuring sockets and it takes precedence over the hostname. If you are
      connecting to a socket outside of the Postgres convention, use `:socket` instead;
    * `:socket` - Connect to Postgres via UNIX sockets in the given path.
      This option takes precedence over the `:hostname` and `:socket_dir`
    * `:username` - Username
    * `:password` - User password
    * `:port` - Server port (default: 5432)
    * `:database` - the database to connect to
    * `:maintenance_database` - Specifies the name of the database to connect to when
      creating or dropping the database. Defaults to `"postgres"`
    * `:pool` - The connection pool module, may be set to `Ecto.Adapters.SQL.Sandbox`
    * `:ssl` - Set to true if ssl should be used (default: false)
    * `:ssl_opts` - A list of ssl options, see Erlang's `ssl` docs
    * `:parameters` - Keyword list of connection parameters
    * `:connect_timeout` - The timeout for establishing new connections (default: 5000)
    * `:prepare` - How to prepare queries, either `:named` to use named queries
      or `:unnamed` to force unnamed queries (default: `:named`)
    * `:socket_options` - Specifies socket configuration
    * `:show_sensitive_data_on_connection_error` - show connection data and
      configuration whenever there is an error attempting to connect to the

  The `:socket_options` are particularly useful when configuring the size
  of both send and receive buffers. For example, when Ecto starts with a
  pool of 20 connections, the memory usage may quickly grow from 20MB to
  50MB based on the operating system default values for TCP buffers. It is
  advised to stick with the operating system defaults but they can be
  tweaked if desired:

      socket_options: [recbuf: 8192, sndbuf: 8192]

  We also recommend developers to consult the `Postgrex.start_link/1`
  documentation for a complete listing of all supported options.

  ### Storage options

    * `:encoding` - the database encoding (default: "UTF8")
      or `:unspecified` to remove encoding parameter (alternative engine compatibility)
    * `:template` - the template to create the database from
    * `:lc_collate` - the collation order
    * `:lc_ctype` - the character classification
    * `:dump_path` - where to place dumped structures
    * `dump_prefixes` - list of prefixes that will be included in the structure dump.
      When specified, the prefixes will have their definitions dumped along with the
      data in their migration table. When it is not specified, the configured
      database has the definitions dumped from all of its schemas but only
      the data from the migration table from the `public` schema is included.
    * `:force_drop` - force the database to be dropped even
      if it has connections to it (requires PostgreSQL 13+)

  ### After connect callback

  If you want to execute a callback as soon as connection is established
  to the database, you can use the `:after_connect` configuration. For
  example, in your repository configuration you can add:

      after_connect: {Postgrex, :query!, ["SET search_path TO global_prefix", []]}

  You can also specify your own module that will receive the Postgrex
  connection as argument.

  ## Extensions

  Both PostgreSQL and its adapter for Elixir, Postgrex, support an
  extension system. If you want to use custom extensions for Postgrex
  alongside Ecto, you must define a type module with your extensions.
  Create a new file anywhere in your application with the following:

                            [MyExtension.Foo, MyExtensionBar] ++ Ecto.Adapters.Postgres.extensions())

  Once your type module is defined, you can configure the repository to use it:

      config :my_app, MyApp.Repo, types: MyApp.PostgresTypes


  # Inherit all behaviour from Ecto.Adapters.SQL
  use Ecto.Adapters.SQL, driver: :postgrex

  require Logger

  # And provide a custom storage implementation
  @behaviour Ecto.Adapter.Storage
  @behaviour Ecto.Adapter.Structure

  @default_maintenance_database "postgres"
  @default_prepare_opt :named

  @doc """
  All Ecto extensions for Postgrex.
  def extensions do

  # Support arrays in place of IN
  @impl true
  def dumpers({:map, _}, type),        do: [&Ecto.Type.embedded_dump(type, &1, :json)]
  def dumpers({:in, sub}, {:in, sub}), do: [{:array, sub}]
  def dumpers(:binary_id, type),       do: [type, Ecto.UUID]
  def dumpers(_, type),                do: [type]

  ## Query API

  @impl Ecto.Adapter.Queryable
  def execute(adapter_meta, query_meta, query, params, opts) do
    prepare = Keyword.get(opts, :prepare, @default_prepare_opt)

    unless valid_prepare?(prepare) do
      raise ArgumentError,
        "expected option `:prepare` to be either `:named` or `:unnamed`, got: #{inspect(prepare)}"

    Ecto.Adapters.SQL.execute(prepare, adapter_meta, query_meta, query, params, opts)

  defp valid_prepare?(prepare) when prepare in [:named, :unnamed], do: true
  defp valid_prepare?(_), do: false

  ## Storage API

  @impl true
  def storage_up(opts) do
    database =
      Keyword.fetch!(opts, :database) || raise ":database is nil in repository configuration"

    encoding = if opts[:encoding] == :unspecified, do: nil, else: opts[:encoding] || "UTF8"
    maintenance_database = Keyword.get(opts, :maintenance_database, @default_maintenance_database)
    opts = Keyword.put(opts, :database, maintenance_database)

    check_existence_command = "SELECT FROM pg_database WHERE datname = '#{database}'"

    case run_query(check_existence_command, opts) do
      {:ok, %{num_rows: 1}} ->
        {:error, :already_up}

      _ ->
        create_command =
          ~s(CREATE DATABASE "#{database}")
          |> concat_if(encoding, &"ENCODING '#{&1}'")
          |> concat_if(opts[:template], &"TEMPLATE=#{&1}")
          |> concat_if(opts[:lc_ctype], &"LC_CTYPE='#{&1}'")
          |> concat_if(opts[:lc_collate], &"LC_COLLATE='#{&1}'")

        case run_query(create_command, opts) do
          {:ok, _} ->

          {:error, %{postgres: %{code: :duplicate_database}}} ->
            {:error, :already_up}

          {:error, error} ->
            {:error, Exception.message(error)}

  defp concat_if(content, nil, _),  do: content
  defp concat_if(content, false, _),  do: content
  defp concat_if(content, value, fun), do: content <> " " <> fun.(value)

  @impl true
  def storage_down(opts) do
    database = Keyword.fetch!(opts, :database) || raise ":database is nil in repository configuration"
    command = "DROP DATABASE \"#{database}\""
              |> concat_if(opts[:force_drop], fn _ -> "WITH (FORCE)" end)
    maintenance_database = Keyword.get(opts, :maintenance_database, @default_maintenance_database)
    opts = Keyword.put(opts, :database, maintenance_database)

    case run_query(command, opts) do
      {:ok, _} ->
      {:error, %{postgres: %{code: :invalid_catalog_name}}} ->
        {:error, :already_down}
      {:error, error} ->
        {:error, Exception.message(error)}

  @impl Ecto.Adapter.Storage
  def storage_status(opts) do
    database = Keyword.fetch!(opts, :database) || raise ":database is nil in repository configuration"
    maintenance_database = Keyword.get(opts, :maintenance_database, @default_maintenance_database)
    opts = Keyword.put(opts, :database, maintenance_database)

    check_database_query = "SELECT datname FROM pg_catalog.pg_database WHERE datname = '#{database}'"

    case run_query(check_database_query, opts) do
      {:ok, %{num_rows: 0}} -> :down
      {:ok, %{num_rows: _num_rows}} -> :up
      other -> {:error, other}

  @impl true
  def supports_ddl_transaction? do

  @impl true
  def lock_for_migrations(meta, opts, fun) do
    %{opts: adapter_opts, repo: repo} = meta

    if Keyword.fetch(adapter_opts, :pool_size) == {:ok, 1} do

    opts = Keyword.merge(opts, [timeout: :infinity, telemetry_options: [schema_migration: true]])
    config = repo.config()
    lock_strategy = Keyword.get(config, :migration_lock, :table_lock)
    do_lock_for_migrations(lock_strategy, meta, opts, config, fun)

  defp do_lock_for_migrations(:pg_advisory_lock, meta, opts, config, fun) do
    lock = :erlang.phash2({:ecto, opts[:prefix], meta.repo})

    retry_state = %{
      retry_interval_ms: config[:migration_advisory_lock_retry_interval_ms] || 5000,
      max_tries: config[:migration_advisory_lock_max_tries] || :infinity,
      tries: 0

    advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock, retry_state, fun)

  defp do_lock_for_migrations(:table_lock, meta, opts, _config, fun) do
    {:ok, res} =
      transaction(meta, opts, fn ->
        # SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE MODE is the first lock that locks
        # itself but still allows updates to happen, see
        # #
        source = Keyword.get(opts, :migration_source, "schema_migrations")
        table = if prefix = opts[:prefix], do: ~s|"#{prefix}"."#{source}"|, else: ~s|"#{source}"|
        {:ok, _} = Ecto.Adapters.SQL.query(meta, "LOCK TABLE #{table} IN SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE MODE", [], opts)


  defp advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock, retry_state, fun) do
    result = checkout(meta, opts, fn ->
      case Ecto.Adapters.SQL.query(meta, "SELECT pg_try_advisory_lock(#{lock})", [], opts) do
        {:ok, %{rows: [[true]]}} ->
          try do
            {:ok, fun.()}
            release_advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock)
        _ ->

    case result do
      {:ok, fun_result} ->

      :no_advisory_lock ->
        maybe_retry_advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock, retry_state, fun)

  defp release_advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock) do
    case Ecto.Adapters.SQL.query(meta, "SELECT pg_advisory_unlock(#{lock})", [], opts) do
      {:ok, %{rows: [[true]]}} ->
      _ ->
        raise "failed to release advisory lock"

  defp maybe_retry_advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock, retry_state, fun) do
    %{retry_interval_ms: interval, max_tries: max_tries, tries: tries} = retry_state

    if max_tries != :infinity && max_tries <= tries do
      raise "failed to obtain advisory lock. Tried #{max_tries} times waiting #{interval}ms between tries"
      if Keyword.get(opts, :log_migrator_sql, false) do"Migration lock occupied for #{inspect(meta.repo)}. Retry #{tries + 1}/#{max_tries} at #{interval}ms intervals.")

      retry_state = %{retry_state | tries: tries + 1}
      advisory_lock(meta, opts, lock, retry_state, fun)

  @impl true
  def structure_dump(default, config) do
    table = config[:migration_source] || "schema_migrations"
    with {:ok, versions} <- select_versions(table, config),
         {:ok, path} <- pg_dump(default, config),
         do: append_versions(table, versions, path)

  defp select_versions(table, config) do
    prefixes = config[:dump_prefixes] || ["public"]

    result =
      Enum.reduce_while(prefixes, [], fn prefix, versions ->
        case run_query(~s[SELECT version FROM #{prefix}."#{table}" ORDER BY version], config) do
          {:ok, %{rows: rows}} -> {:cont,, &{prefix, hd(&1)}) ++ versions }
          {:error, %{postgres: %{code: :undefined_table}}} -> {:cont, versions}
          {:error, _} = error -> {:halt, error}

    case result do
      {:error, _} = error -> error
      versions -> {:ok, versions}

  defp pg_dump(default, config) do
    path = config[:dump_path] || Path.join(default, "structure.sql")
    prefixes = config[:dump_prefixes] || []
    non_prefix_args = ["--file", path, "--schema-only", "--no-acl", "--no-owner"]

    args =
      Enum.reduce(prefixes, non_prefix_args, fn prefix, acc ->
        ["-n", prefix | acc]


    case run_with_cmd("pg_dump", config, args) do
      {_output, 0} ->
        {:ok, path}
      {output, _} ->
        {:error, output}

  defp append_versions(_table, [], path) do
    {:ok, path}

  defp append_versions(table, versions, path) do
    sql =
      Enum.map_join(versions, fn {prefix, version} ->
        ~s[INSERT INTO #{prefix}."#{table}" (version) VALUES (#{version});\n]
      end)!(path, [:append], fn file ->
      IO.write(file, sql)

    {:ok, path}

  @impl true
  def structure_load(default, config) do
    path = config[:dump_path] || Path.join(default, "structure.sql")
    args = ["--quiet", "--file", path, "-vON_ERROR_STOP=1", "--single-transaction"]
    case run_with_cmd("psql", config, args) do
      {_output, 0} -> {:ok, path}
      {output, _}  -> {:error, output}

  @impl true
  def dump_cmd(args, opts \\ [], config) when is_list(config) and is_list(args),
    do: run_with_cmd("pg_dump", config, args, opts)

  ## Helpers

  defp run_query(sql, opts) do
    {:ok, _} = Application.ensure_all_started(:ecto_sql)
    {:ok, _} = Application.ensure_all_started(:postgrex)

    opts =
      |> Keyword.drop([:name, :log, :pool, :pool_size])
      |> Keyword.put(:backoff_type, :stop)
      |> Keyword.put(:max_restarts, 0)

    task = Task.Supervisor.async_nolink(Ecto.Adapters.SQL.StorageSupervisor, fn ->
      {:ok, conn} = Postgrex.start_link(opts)

      value = Postgrex.query(conn, sql, [], opts)

    timeout = Keyword.get(opts, :timeout, 15_000)

    case Task.yield(task, timeout) || Task.shutdown(task) do
      {:ok, {:ok, result}} ->
        {:ok, result}
      {:ok, {:error, error}} ->
        {:error, error}
      {:exit, {%{__struct__: struct} = error, _}}
          when struct in [Postgrex.Error, DBConnection.Error] ->
        {:error, error}
      {:exit, reason}  ->
        {:error, RuntimeError.exception(Exception.format_exit(reason))}
      nil ->
        {:error, RuntimeError.exception("command timed out")}

  defp run_with_cmd(cmd, opts, opt_args, cmd_opts \\ []) do
    unless System.find_executable(cmd) do
      raise "could not find executable `#{cmd}` in path, " <>
            "please guarantee it is available before running ecto commands"

    env =
      [{"PGCONNECT_TIMEOUT", "10"}]
    env =
      if password = opts[:password] do
        [{"PGPASSWORD", password}|env]

    args =
    args =
      if username = opts[:username], do: ["--username", username | args], else: args
    args =
      if port = opts[:port], do: ["--port", to_string(port) | args], else: args
    args =
      if database = opts[:database], do: ["--dbname", database | args], else: args

    host = opts[:socket_dir] || opts[:hostname] || System.get_env("PGHOST") || "localhost"

    if opts[:socket] do
        ":socket option is ignored when connecting in structure_load/2 and structure_dump/2," <>
          " use :socket_dir or :hostname instead"

    args = ["--host", host | args]
    args = args ++ opt_args

    cmd_opts =
      |> Keyword.put_new(:stderr_to_stdout, true)
      |> Keyword.update(:env, env, &Enum.concat(env, &1))

    System.cmd(cmd, args, cmd_opts)