# GenBrowser

**Transparent bi-directional communication for clients, servers and more**

## Example

// ponger.html
const client = await GenBrowser.start('http://localhost:8080')


client.mailbox.setHandler((message) => {
  console.log('received message:', message)
  client.send(message.from, {type: 'pong'})

// pinger.html
const client = await GenBrowser.start('http://localhost:8080')

var peer = prompt("Enter a ponger address.")
if (peer == '') {
  peer = client.config.logger
client.send(peer, {type: 'ping', from: client.address})

await client.mailbox.receive({timeout: 5000})
console.log("Pong received")

Once started `gen-browser` has four things.

1. An address that other clients, or the server, use it to send messages to this browser.
2. A mailbox to receive messages. The mailbox can be used in one of two ways, but not both.
  - `mailbox.receive()` will return a promise that will resolve on the next message received by the browser.
  - `mailbox.handle(callback)` will call the callback with the contents of a message each time one is received.
3. A function to send messages, that takes the target address and messages as arguments.
  The message must be serialisable to JSON.
4. Config from the server, this can be anything including addresses for processes on the backend,
  such as the logger process in the examples above.

*Note:* Receive cannot be called on mailbox that has a custom handler installed.

## Playground

The pinger/ponger example is included in the `/examples` dir this project.
Clone this repo and follow the instructions below to experiment.

git clone
cd gen_browser

Make sure the JavaScript bundle is built.

npm install
npm run build

To start the backend use Docker as follows.

docker build -t gen-browser .
docker run -it -e SECRET=s3cr3t -p 8080:8080 gen-browser iex -S mix run --no-halt examples/standalone.exs

Or, if you have Elixir installed but not docker, mix can be used directly

SECRET=s3cr3t iex -S mix run --no-halt examples/standalone.exs

## Server API

Addresses can just as easily be used from the backend.

### Send a message to a client

First fetch the address of a running ponger browser.

In the server console

iex> address = "g2gCZAAGZ2xvYmFsaAJkABlFbGl4aXIuR2VuQnJvd3Nlci5NYWlsYm94bQAAAAxWR0hFWFkwZWExUEg=--qp7BCZMlqtGpO7nUDwQmZC4CkA-tPZE56uVISq6xEcU="
iex> {:ok, ponger} = GenBrowser.decode_address(address)
# {:ok, {:global, {GenBrowser.Mailbox, "VGHEXY0ea1PH"}}}

iex> GenBrowser.send(ponger, %{"type" => "ping", "from" =>})
# {:ok, :sent}
iex> flush
# %{
#   "from" => "g2gCZAAGZ2xvYmFsaAJkABlFbGl4aXIuR2VuQnJvd3Nlci5NYWlsYm94bQAAAAxWR0hFWFkwZWExUEg=--qp7BCZMlqtGpO7nUDwQmZC4CkA-tPZE56uVISq6xEcU=",
#   "type" => "pong"
# }
# :ok

## Notes

### So experimental right now

Best thing to do is play with examples.

Check the [Roadmap](#Roadmap) for what I'm working on next.

### Rational

Client/Server is just another type of distributed system.
What if the whole system can be treated as a group of processes that send messages to each other.

#### Goal 1

Make it just as easy to send messages client to server and even client to client.

#### Goal 2

Model all communication as message passing so the system can be verified using session types or similar

### Whats in a name?

The name `GenBrowser` comes from the erlang/Elixir terms for generalised servers; `GenServer`.
Originally this project was aiming to model interations with the browser the same as any other erlang process.
However at this point it is clear this is just a general communication layer and does not need to be tied to any erlang/OTP terminology.

Other names
// cloud sounds like backup. instead redux-swarm, redux-flock, redux-cluster, redux-comms
// conveyance, transmission,

### Redux is the JavaScript name for Actor

Redux doesn't have a way to spawn new processes, so the analogy is not perfect.
However it is probably the closed many developers have come.
This might be a useful place to start the conversation.

### `EventSource` is not implemented in IE

Polyfills are available and some of these work in a node environment.

### There is no alert for disconnects

The browser disconnecting from the internet might not be important.
Messages for the browser will be kept on the server until it reconnects.
Because this is a distributed system, being connected to the server might still not mean you are connected to the peer you need.

To check connections send a message and await a reply or timeout.

If it is necessary to check connection with the server in general a message can be sent from the browser to it's own address.
This will involve a server round trip.

### Clients are temporary

The client created from `GenBrowser.start` is deliberatly temporary, it is analogous to a process on the server side.
It is perhaps closer to the concept of a session.

If the user wants to access some persistent data they should send a message, probably with authentication.
This message should indicate the persistent data to access and the current session to forward it to.

### Messages that are not understood

Messages can always not be understood by the server.
When using `send` the response is 202 accepted, this just means the server in general was happy the target process might not know how to handle the message.

The target process might not even know who the message came from, and so be unable to return an error.
In this case the system has to rely on timeouts and crashlogging.

To tackle this problem a standard message container could be provided,
it might include a standard format for sender, and perhaps tracing.
Such a standard format could easily be built on top of this library.

### Client outbound queue

The client is able to handle network interuptions on the receive side.
However if sending during a network interuption then the send will fail.

Messages could be automatically retried in case of 5xx response (but not 4xx),
This would require knowledge about the idempotency of the message in question.
`dispatch(address, message, retry)` where retry is true/false or function taking error.

### Ordering between two clients

The order of messages in the server mailbox is kept when streaming these to the client.
This does not guarantee ordering of messages sent from a client to a server process.
There is no correlation between requests sent.

The client could queue messages and only process the next once it has received an ack that the first is in the mailbox.
This does not need to be inefficient as it could send a list of messages in the case that it has multiple messages in the queue.

Simply queuing before sending would not guarantee order, the HTTP handling process on the backend would be different for each process.

### Addresses are large

Address encoding just makes use of `:erlang.term_to_binary` + `Base.url_encode64`.
With the addition of signing this makes for very large address strings.

If the encode function knew about all possible things that could be encoded then encoding could be super effiecient.
Say a single byte for which module will following bytes just handled by that module.

This would need some top level information about what spec the address was created with,
once things are sent to the client they can survive redeploys.

Connection would need to communicate that spec version `/mailbox/?spec=v1.1`
The secret for signing could be the spec id, however that probably just increases the risk of leaking the secret.

### Every event involves a signature

As it stands every event involves calculating a digest.
It is probably safe to sign just the mailbox_id and append the count number to the signed mailbox_id.
Currently the count number is appended to the mailbox_id and that combined cursor signed

### GenCall

A call function could exist, both where the server can call the client and block on response and vica versa.

This would require the send function to have a reference to the mailbox.
It would also require a selective receive, other push messages from the server might have arrived.
A standard call format would go someway to providing a standard message container as discussed in messages not understood.

### Security

A client should only be able to send message to addresses it has been provided with.
i.e. it should not be possible to guess the address of processes.

This is the Object capability security model

By signing the event-id this method can be used to secure an individual clients reconnections

- If id generation secure enough don't need to sign those addresses,
  However will always need to sign encoded tuples, don't want those to be generated
- Reconnection id is the security mechanism to act as someone.
  In what cases does that id get sent again? How can nefarious actors get to that information,
  EventSource doesn't let you add custom headers.

### Redux swarm where you send every browser you are connected to

### Single language

This project aims to unify the programming model accross both client and server.
It does not yet unify language.
The goal to unify language would be an argument for a server implemented in node, however this is not the best host for thinging of the system using the Actor model.
It might be possible to use ElixirScript for the front end.

### Is this crazy?


Let me know what you think.

## Roadmap

### Integration with raxx and/or plug

### Demonstrate with Redux

This could just be the redux swarm below.
There are ways to start new browser windows, this might be fun

### Clear the server mailbox

Client should be able to send the ability to ack messages and clear up the contents of the server mailbox.

The server mailbox process should also have a timeout after which a reconnection is not possible.

Can the id of a reconnect be taken as an ack, or should that be sent separatly.

There should also be a timeout after which the mailbox process dies.
Finally we need to signal to the client in cases when a reconnect to a dead mailbox is attempted.

`Clients will reconnect if the connection is closed; a client can be told to stop reconnecting using the HTTP 204 No Content response code.`
This might not trigger an onerror, it might be best to on error on the client so sending a 4xx could be better

### Work out how to provide a validation layer for messages as they are received by server

`send` already returns a promise, awaiting on this could at least validate message was legit

### Redux middleware

This is the comms goal, i.e. don't call send, just return a list of addresses and messages thus making the whole thing pure.

### Support a multi-node backend

To support a multi node backend it is required to guarantee that only on server mailbox can exist for each client(mailbox_id)
`:global` can suffer split brain and so might not be an adequate solution.
However because we know when to create a new mailbox, and they are always started with a random id, it might be the case that a split brain is not a problem.
The effect of a split brain would be sometimes thinking a server mailbox had died when it was infact in the other partition.
This would require setting up a new mailbox, but this eventuallity already has to be accounted for.