# Polymorphic embeds for Ecto

`polymorphic_embed` brings support for polymorphic/dynamic embedded schemas in Ecto.

Ecto's `embeds_one` and `embeds_many` macros require a specific schema module to be specified. This library removes this restriction by
**dynamically** determining which schema to use, based on data to be stored (from a form or API) and retrieved (from the
data source).

## Usage

### Enable polymorphism

Let's say we want a schema `Reminder` representing a reminder for an event, that can be sent either by email or SMS.

We create the `Email` and `SMS` embedded schemas containing the fields that are specific for each of those communication

The `Reminder` schema can then contain a `:channel` field that will either hold an `Email` or `SMS` struct, by setting
its type to the custom type `PolymorphicEmbed` that this library provides.

Find the schema code and explanations below.

defmodule MyApp.Reminder do
  use Ecto.Schema
  import Ecto.Changeset
  import PolymorphicEmbed

  schema "reminders" do
    field :date, :utc_datetime
    field :text, :string

    polymorphic_embeds_one :channel,
      types: [
        sms: MyApp.Channel.SMS,
        email: MyApp.Channel.Email
      on_type_not_found: :raise,
      on_replace: :update

  def changeset(struct, values) do
    |> cast(values, [:date, :text])
    |> cast_polymorphic_embed(:channel, required: true)
    |> validate_required(:date)

defmodule MyApp.Channel.Email do
  use Ecto.Schema
  import Ecto.Changeset

  @primary_key false

  embedded_schema do
    field :address, :string
    field :confirmed, :boolean

  def changeset(email, params) do
    |> cast(params, ~w(address confirmed)a)
    |> validate_required(:address)
    |> validate_length(:address, min: 4)

defmodule MyApp.Channel.SMS do
  use Ecto.Schema

  @primary_key false

  embedded_schema do
    field :number, :string

In your migration file, you may use the type `:map` for both `polymorphic_embeds_one/2` and `polymorphic_embeds_many/2` fields.

add(:channel, :map)

[It is not recommended]( to use `{:array, :map}` for a list of embeds.

### `cast_polymorphic_embed/3`

`cast_polymorphic_embed/3` must be called to cast the polymorphic embed's parameters.

#### Options

* `:required` – if the embed is a required field.

* `:with` – allows you to specify a custom changeset. Either pass an MFA or a function:
|> cast_polymorphic_embed(:channel,
  with: [
    sms: {SMS, :custom_changeset, ["hello"]},
    email: &Email.custom_changeset/2

### PolymorphicEmbed Ecto type

The `:types` option for the `PolymorphicEmbed` custom type contains a keyword list mapping an atom representing the type
(in this example `:email` and `:sms`) with the corresponding embedded schema module.

There are two strategies to detect the right embedded schema to use:

[sms: MyApp.Channel.SMS]

When receiving parameters to be casted (e.g. from a form), we expect a `"__type__"` (or `:__type__`) parameter
containing the type of channel (`"email"` or `"sms"`).

[email: [
  module: MyApp.Channel.Email,
  identify_by_fields: [:address, :confirmed]]]

Here we specify how the type can be determined based on the presence of given fields. In this example, if the data
contains `:address` and `:confirmed` parameters (or their string version), the type is `:email`. A `"__type__"`
parameter is then no longer required.

Note that you may still include a `__type__` parameter that will take precedence over this strategy (this could still be
useful if you need to store incomplete data, which might not allow identifying the type).

#### List of polymorphic embeds

Lists of polymorphic embeds are also supported:

polymorphic_embeds_many :contexts,
  types: [
    location: MyApp.Context.Location,
    age: MyApp.Context.Age,
    device: MyApp.Context.Device
  on_type_not_found: :raise,
  on_replace: :delete

#### Options

* `:types` – discussed above.
* `:type_field` – specify a custom type field. Defaults to `:__type__`.
* `:on_type_not_found` – specify what to do if the embed's type cannot be inferred.
  Possible values are
  - `:raise`: raise an error
  - `:changeset_error`: add a changeset error
  - `:nilify`: replace the data by `nil`; only for single (non-list) embeds
  - `:ignore`: ignore the data; only for lists of embeds

  By default, a changeset error "is invalid" is added.
* `:on_replace` – mandatory option that can only be set to `:update` for a single embed and `:delete` for a list of
  embeds (we force a value as the default value of this option for `embeds_one` and `embeds_many` is `:raise`).

### Displaying form inputs and errors in Phoenix templates

The library comes with a form helper in order to build form inputs for polymorphic embeds and display changeset errors.

In the entrypoint defining your web interface (`lib/your_app_web.ex` file), add the following import:

def view do
  quote do
    # imports and stuff
    import PolymorphicEmbed.HTML.Form

This provides you with the `polymorphic_embed_inputs_for/3` and `polymorphic_embed_inputs_for/4` functions.

Here is an example form using the imported function:

<%= inputs_for f, :reminders, fn reminder_form -> %>
  <%= polymorphic_embed_inputs_for reminder_form, :channel, :sms, fn sms_form -> %>
    <div class="sms-inputs">
      <%= text_input sms_form, :number %>
      <div class="error">
        <%= error_tag sms_form, :number %>
  <% end %>
<% end %>

When using `polymorphic_embed_inputs_for/4`, you have to manually specify the type. When the embed is `nil`, empty fields will be displayed.

`polymorphic_embed_inputs_for/3` doesn't require the type to be specified. When the embed is `nil`, no fields are displayed.

They both render a hidden input for the `"__type__"` field.

### Displaying form inputs and errors in LiveView

You may use `polymorphic_embed_inputs_for/2` when working with LiveView.

  <%= for channel_form <- polymorphic_embed_inputs_for f, :channel do %>
    <%= hidden_inputs_for(channel_form) %>

    <%= case get_polymorphic_type(channel_form, Reminder, :channel) do %>
      <% :sms -> %>
        <%= label channel_form, :number %>
        <%= text_input channel_form, :number %>

      <% :email -> %>
        <%= label channel_form, :email %>
        <%= text_input channel_form, :email %>
  <% end %>

Using this function, you have to render the necessary hidden inputs manually as shown above.

### Get the type of a polymorphic embed

Sometimes you need to serialize the polymorphic embed and, once in the front-end, need to distinguish them.
`get_polymorphic_type/3` returns the type of the polymorphic embed:

PolymorphicEmbed.get_polymorphic_type(Reminder, :channel, SMS) == :sms

### `traverse_errors/2`

The function `Ecto.changeset.traverse_errors/2` won't include the errors of polymorphic embeds. You may instead use `PolymorphicEmbed.traverse_errors/2` when working with polymorphic embeds.

## Features

* Detect which types to use for the data being `cast`-ed, based on fields present in the data (no need for a *type* field in the data)
* Run changeset validations when a `changeset/2` function is present (when absent, the library will introspect the fields to cast)
* Support for nested polymorphic embeds
* Support for nested `embeds_one`/`embeds_many` embeds
* Display form inputs for polymorphic embeds in Phoenix templates
* Tests to ensure code quality

## Installation

Add `polymorphic_embed` for Elixir as a dependency in your `mix.exs` file:

def deps do
    {:polymorphic_embed, "~> 3.0.4"}

## HexDocs

HexDocs documentation can be found at [](