# PublicSuffix

`PublicSuffix` is an Elixir library to operate on domain names using
the public suffix rules provided by

> A "public suffix" is one under which Internet users can (or
> historically could) directly register names. Some examples of public
> suffixes are `.com`, `` and ``. The Public Suffix List is
> a list of all known public suffixes.

This Elixir library provides a means to get the public suffix and the
registrable domain from any domain:

``` iex
iex(1)> PublicSuffix.registrable_domain("")
iex(2)> PublicSuffix.registrable_domain("")
iex(3)> PublicSuffix.public_suffix("")
iex(4)> PublicSuffix.public_suffix("")

The data file contains both official ICANN records
and private records:

> ICANN domains are those delegated by ICANN or part of the IANA root zone database. The authorized registry may express further policies on how they operate the TLD, such as subdivisions within it. Updates to this section can be submitted by anyone, but if they are not an authorized representative of the registry then they will need to back up their claims of error with documentation from the registry's website.
> PRIVATE domains are amendments submitted by the domain holder, as an expression of how they operate their domain security policy. Updates to this section are only accepted from authorized representatives of the domain registrant. This is so we can be certain they know what they are getting into.

By default, `PublicSuffix` considers private domain records, but you can
tell it to ignore them:

``` iex
iex(1)> PublicSuffix.registrable_domain("")
iex(2)> PublicSuffix.public_suffix("")
iex(3)> PublicSuffix.registrable_domain("", ignore_private: true)
iex(4)> PublicSuffix.public_suffix("", ignore_private: true)

## Working with Rules

You can also gain access to the prevailing rule for a particular domain:

``` iex
iex(1)> PublicSuffix.prevailing_rule("")
iex(2)> PublicSuffix.prevailing_rule("mysite.example")

The value returned in the last example (`"*"`) is the fallback rule when
there is no explicit matching rule defined in the rules file. If you
just want to know if a domain matches an explicit matching rule, we
provide a predicate for that:

``` iex
iex(1)> PublicSuffix.matches_explicit_rule?("")
iex(2)> PublicSuffix.matches_explicit_rule?("mysite.example")

## Installation

If [available in Hex](, the package can be installed as:

  1. Add public_suffix to your list of dependencies in `mix.exs`:

        def deps do
          [{:public_suffix, "~> 0.1.0"}]

  2. Ensure public_suffix is started before your application:

        def application do
          [applications: [:public_suffix]]

## Configuration

`PublicSuffix` is bundled with a cached copy of the public suffix rules from, but can be configured to download the rules files on compilation
by adding the following line to your project's `config.exs`:

config :public_suffix, download_data_on_compile: true

There are pros and cons to both approaches; which you choose will depend
on the needs of your project:

* Setting `download_data_on_compile` to `true` will ensure that the
  rules are always up-to-date (as of the time you last compiled) but
  could introduce an instability. While we have tried to implement
  the logic in this library according to the spec,
  one can imagine future rule changes not being handled properly by
  the existing logic and manifesting itself in a new bug.
* Setting `download_data_on_compile` to `false` (or not setting it at
  all) ensures stable, consistent behavior. In the context of your
  project, you may want compilation to be deterministic. Compilation
  is also a bit faster when a new copy of the rules is not downloaded.

## Known Issues

The [Public Suffix specification](
specifically allows wildcards to appear multiple times in a rule
and at any position:

> Wildcards are not restricted to appear only in the leftmost position,
> but they must wildcard an entire label. (I.e. `*.*.foo` is a valid rule:
> `*` is not.)

However, while supporting a single leading wildcard is easy, supporting
multiple wildcards and wildcards at any position is far more difficult.
Furthermore, all wildcard rules in the data file use
a wildcard only at the leftmost position. There is also an open conversation
going about this issue:

From the issue, most public suffix implementations, including Mozilla
and Chromium, only support wildcards at the leftmost position. We do
not support them yet, either, but may in the future depending on the
direction of the github issue.